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I vjetėr 7.5.2009, 23:27   1
Kandhaon
anėtar/e
 
Kandhaon
 
Anėtarėsuar: 8.2006
Vendndodhja: Nė breshta, mes bredhave,

Delja u zbut njėkohėsisht nė shumė vende


Citim:
Evidence of three maternal lineages in near eastern sheep supporting multiple domestication events

Archaeological data suggest two different areas with independent sheep domestication events in Turkey: the upper Euphrates valley in eastern Turkey, where the most important reference is the Nevali Cori settlement, considered the oldest domestication site in the Near East and Central Anatolia (particularly, the Catal hƶyĆ¼k and Asikli hƶyĆ¼k sites.

Ā Archaeological data from Early Neolithic human settlements distant from one another throughout the Near East support the occurrence of independent domestication events in this area. The first region of importance, with the oldest human settlements in the Near East (Nevali Cori and ƇayƶnĆ¼ Tepesi), is dated about 8500 BC and located in the upper Euphrates valley in eastern Turkey, near the northern arc of the so-called Fertile Crescent . The Zagros region of modern day Iran and Iraq is also recognized as a primary centre of sheep domestication . In central Anatolia, the Asikli HƶyĆ¼k and ƇatalhƶyĆ¼k sites have also revealed morphologically domestic caprines . Finally, the Southern Levant region of southern Syria, western Jordan and Israel has also been suggested as a centre of sheep domestication. Actually, the first two regions, the upper Euphrates valley and Zagros were proposed byĀ as the origin of two out of the three goat lineages, presumably rising from independent domestications.

On the basis of all this, the multiple sheep maternal lineages revealed in our study suggest that the process of sheep domestication was more complex than previously thought. Estimated divergence time, long before domestication dating (around 8000 BC), suggests that at least three independent domestication events were involved in the origin of modern domestic sheep.

So it seems sheep were domesticated in multiple locations.
Lajmi ka rėndėsi tė madhe pėr tė hedhur poshtė teorinė se "ēdo gjė vjen nga Azia".

Nė tė vėrtetė, nė atė kohė tė mungesės sė komunikacionit (pėrveē kėmbėve), mė shumė ka gjasa qė njė njeri nė Ballkan tė fillojė kultivimin e bimėve ose kafshėve, se sa tė presė njė aziatik me mijėra kilometra larg t'ja sjellė kėto njohuri.

Lajmi tjetėr pėr dhitė:

Citim:
Present-day domestic goats may look humble, but they harbor more genetic diversity than any other livestock species. In fact, analyses of goats’ mitochondrial DNA have shown that these animals evolved through five distinct maternal lines that spread from the Near East and central Asia across Europe.

A new study indicates that goats representing the earliest two of the five genetic lines inhabited the same location in southwestern Europe by about 7,000 years ago, only 3,000 years after the initial domestication of the animals in the Near East.

This ancient genetic diversity in a region far from the goat strains’ origins reflects the long-distance transport of goats from the Near East by European pioneers soon after the origins of animal domestication, farming, and village life, say geneticist Pierre Taberlet of Joseph Fourier University in Grenoble, France, and his colleagues in an upcoming Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Today’s other three genetic lines arose later in parts of central Asia, Taberlet’s group proposes.

The scientists analyzed mitochondrial DNA retrieved from 19 goat bones found at an ancient farming site in southern France. Other researchers had excavated these fossils about 20 years ago in soil that contained the remains of more than 5,000 animals, including pigs, cattle, and sheep.

New radiocarbon measurements of five goat bones placed them at between 7,300 and 6,900 years old.

By extracting and analyzing genetic material from several goat bones, two independent laboratories confirmed that the sequences that Taberlet’s group examined were uncontaminated, ancient DNA.

Comparisons of the ancient goat mitochondrial DNA with sequences of modern goat DNA revealed that the two Near Eastern lineages had inhabited the prehistoric French site at the same time.

Taberlet and his colleagues suspect that early farmers transported each line of goats into Europe along a separate westward route, one inland and the other running along the Mediterranean Sea.

A preference for moving goats long distances in ancient times makes sense (SN: 5/12/01, p. 294). Goats are the hardiest livestock species. They’re easy to transport by land or boat, and they willingly follow people.

The new data convincingly show the domestication of two ancient goat lineages at the same time somewhere in the Fertile Crescent region, remarks archaeobiologist Melinda A. Zeder of the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C.

Genetic studies of modern domestic sheep have revealed a pattern similar to that of goats, with three to four ancient lineages, Zeder notes. “This suggests that both sheep and goats moved together, as they do today, in mixed herds as they diffused out of the Near East,” she says.

Also..

Archaeological data suggest two distinct places of domestication: the Euphrates river valley at Nevali Ēori, Turkey (11,000 bp), and the Zagros Mountains of Iran at Ganj Dareh (10,000). Other possible sites of domestication include the Indus Basin in Pakistan at (Mehrgarh, 9,000 bp) and perhaps central Anatolia and the southern Levant.
Dhe studim i Adn tek dhitė e asaj kohe:

Citim:
Divergent mtDNA lineages of goats in an Early Neolithic site, far from the initial domestication areas

Helena Fernįndez*, Sandrine Hughes,,, Jean-Denis Vigne¶, Daniel Helmer||, Greg Hodgins**, Christian Miquel*, Catherine Hänni,, Gordon Luikart*,, and Pierre Taberlet*,

Goats were among the first farm animals domesticated, 10,500 years ago, contributing to the rise of the “Neolithic revolution.” Previous genetic studies have revealed that contemporary domestic goats (Capra hircus) show far weaker intercontinental population structuring than other livestock species, suggesting that goats have been transported more extensively. However, the timing of these extensive movements in goats remains unknown. To address this question, we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 19 ancient goat bones (7,300–6,900 years old) from one of the earliest Neolithic sites in southwestern Europe. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that two highly divergent goat lineages coexisted in each of the two Early Neolithic layers of this site. This finding indicates that high mtDNA diversity was already present >7,000 years ago in European goats, far from their areas of initial domestication in the Near East. These results argue for substantial gene flow among goat populations dating back to the early neolithisation of Europe and for a dual domestication scenario in the Near East, with two independent but essentially contemporary origins (of both A and C domestic lineages) and several more remote and/or later origins.
http://mathildasanthropologyblog.wor.../2008/page/27/
  Pėrgjigju duke cituar
I vjetėr 7.5.2009, 23:33   2
Kandhaon
anėtar/e
 
Kandhaon
 
Anėtarėsuar: 8.2006
Vendndodhja: Nė breshta, mes bredhave,
E njėjta gjė vlen pėr Elbin:

Citim:
The double domestication of barley.

According to this recent DNA study of barley, it was domesticated twice, once in Jordan/Israel, and once somewhere East of the Zagros mountains in Iran. The earliest known domestication of barley is about 4,000 years later than that of emmer wheat, and seems to have been a crop domesticated during the Neolithic farmers expansion, not before it.

Genetic evidence for a second domestication of barley (Hordeum vulgare) east of the Fertile Crescent
December 21, 2006.

Cereal agriculture originated with the domestication of barley and early forms of wheat in the Fertile Crescent. There has long been speculation that barley was domesticated more than once. We use differences in haplotype frequency among geographic regions at multiple loci to infer at least two domestications of barley; one within the Fertile Crescent and a second 1,500–3,000 km farther east. The Fertile Crescent domestication contributed the majority of diversity in European and American cultivars, whereas the second domestication contributed most of the diversity in barley from Central Asia to the Far

The domestication of barley is fundamental to understanding the origins and early diffusion of agrarian culture. Barley, as one of the earliest and most important crops in Neolithic agriculture (1), sits at the nexus of what many regard as the most fundamental technological transformation in human history. The oldest archaeological remains of domesticated barley and early forms of wheat are found in human Neolithic sites in the Fertile Crescent such as Abu Hureyra and Jericho (Fig. 1) and are dated to ≈8500 calibrated years BC
Nga e njėjta faqe.
  Pėrgjigju duke cituar
I vjetėr 20.5.2009, 00:56   3
Kandhaon
anėtar/e
 
Kandhaon
 
Anėtarėsuar: 8.2006
Vendndodhja: Nė breshta, mes bredhave,
Njė tjetėr studim gjenetik pėr derrat thotė se nė secilin vend tė botės derrat e butė kanė mė shumė afėrsi me derrat e egėr tė atij rajoni sesa me derrat e butė tė vendeve tjera. Kjo tregon pėr njė zbutje lokale tė kėtyre kafshėve.

http://mathildasanthropologyblog.wor...ultiple-times/
  Pėrgjigju duke cituar
Merr pjesė nė diskutim





Ora nė Shqipėri ėshtė 03:38.

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