Kthehu   Kreu > Vargmal - Intl. edition > The Albanian Question
Tituj tė ngjashėm

 
Pėrdorimi i ēėshtjes
I vjetėr 2.5.2010, 09:55   21
4. Expatriation of Albanians to Turkey (1944-1966)

At the end of 1944 and beginning of 1945, seeing that they had been betrayed, the Albanians began to escape in mass to mountains.36 The government bodies made use of such actions of the majority population of the Albanians in Kosova and justified every persecution of any Albanian that opposed reoccupation by Yugoslavia. Due to this, military courts were very busy with Albanians, and arrests, imprisonment, killing of the Albanians became a daily phenomenon. Serbia intended to empty these territories as soon as possible, or at least to leave as few Albanians as possible.

One of the most efficient methods to accomplish such a policy in Kosova against the Albanians after they had been occupied by the detachments of YNLA, and especially after the establishment of military administration, was forceful mobilisation. In that time, 50,000 Albanians were mobilised in Kosova. When one bears in mind the number of those that were held in prisons or in exile, thousands lost and killed, it can be seen that Kosova had remained without the required forces to defend itself. In these circumstances, the Yugoslav regime intended to create conditions that colonisation should take place in the regions of ethnic Albanians. Confiscation of real estate, requisition, nationalisation and ‘solidarity aids' that were implemented by force and that intended to knee down the people economically, in addition to perpertration of repression influenced the expulsion of the Albanians from their homeland. These measures of the Yugoslav regime were directed to the Albanians only; the Serbs and Montenegrins were saved. The opponents of the YCP were in the most difficult position, and also those with western democratic viewpoint, that were deported from Kosova, and their movable property and real estate was confiscated. Their families were forced to leave the country too. As a consequence of such an attitude, the Albanians had to emigrate to Turkey, or Albania, or elsewhere.

Recolonisation of Kosova by the Serbs and Montenegrins in the spring of 1945, as well as the Law on the revision of agrarian reform worsened further the economic position of the Albanians. A part of the land of Albanian farmers was given to colonists. The interest of colonists to usurp the Albanians' land was great. Only in 1945, 10,054 families applied for it, who could get up to 5 hectares of the land of Albanian farmers.37 

Forceful collectivisation of a part of farming land in Kosova, then mistreatments and perfidious abuse of the Albanians by the Serbs, touched deeply the national tradition and dignity of the Albanians.

The Law on five-year plan (1947-1951) was also in the function of expulsion of the Albanians. This plan provided more accelerated economic development for the undeveloped republics of Yugoslavia (Bosnia, Macedonia, Montenegro), in order to smooth down the existing economic differences, but it left Kosova on the side, despite its being the most undeveloped region in Yugoslavia and its having a great economic and natural potential. Apart from this, the largest part of the plan in Kosova was anticipated to be implemented by ‘voluntary' work, such as: to construct and renovate and restore houses of colonists, to till the soil for them, to provide them with food, etc. Therefore, not only that the regime did not invest anything, but it also worsened the lives of the people here by such measures.38 

The Yugoslav regime, parallel to violence and economic kneeling, attacked deeply the national feelings of the Albanians, their past and historical tradition. Very few schools and educational and cultural institutions were opened for the Albanians and the origin of the Albanian population was denied.39 

In conformity with the intentions of unitary national-chauvinist policy, State Security perpetrated great repression in order that as many as possible Albanians should declare themselves as members of Turkish nationality. Before this action, 1,315 inhabitants of Turkish nationality were recorded in Kosova in the census of 1948, and 97,954 inhabitants in Yugoslavia. However, according to the census of 1953 the number of Turks in Kosova amounted to 34,583 and 259,535 in Yugoslavia.40 The Albanians that opposed to this policy ended in prisons or were forced to leave the country. Thus, during 1953, as a result of this repression, 37,000 Albanians emigrated to Turkey.41 In 1953 the Yugoslav regime ‘took care' of creating special administrative ‘facilities' for the Albanians wanting to emigrate to Turkey, no matter whether they had declared themselves Turks or not. According to official evidence, 19,300 Albanians were expatriated in 1953, and 17,500 others in 1954.42 

To achieve the emigration of the Albanians to Turkey in great mass, the first condition was to create a psychosis of unbearable life. The state machinery exerted pressure of various forms on the Albanians, such as arrests, persecutions, inhuman tortures, physical exterminations, etc. The organs of State Security made use of the action of searching for arms in order to accelerate the expatriation of the Albanians to Turkey.

This punishing activity of the organs of State Security and other organs of the regime, was expressed drastically in the field of culture and education too. The government took measures to close down middle schools in the Albanian language, to reduce the net of elementary schools and to close the sole scientific institution, the Institute of Albanology in Prishtina.

Here is the table of the expatriation of the Albanians during the period 1952-1965.43 

Year No. of persons
1952 37000
1953 17300
1954 17500
1955 51000
1956 54000
1957 57710
1958 41300
1959 32000
1960 27980
1961 31910
1962 15910
1963 25720
1964 21530
1965 19821

The expatriation of the Albanians to Turkey continued also in the period between 1955-1957. In this period, from Kosova and other regions of ethnic Albanians in Yugoslavia emigrated 16,200 Albanians to Turkey.44 

In 1958, around 41,300 Albanians were sent away to Turkey, and the year after it another 32,000. According to official evidence of Yugoslavia, 27,980 Albanians emigrated from Kosova to Turkey in 1960.45 The expatriation of the Albanians to Turkey amounted to 115,000 in the period between 196-1965.

The process of expatriation of the Albanians from Kosova and other regions of ethnic Albanians was replaced by the so-called economic emigration in the political circumstances created in Yugoslavia after the Plenum of Brione.


_____
36. Dr Izber Hoti, Format dhe mėnyrat e pushtimit dhe tė nėnshtrimit tė Kosovės nė fund tė vitit 1944 dhe fillim tė vitit 1945 (Forms and Ways of Invasion and Subjugation of Kosova at the End of 1944 and Beginning of 1945), “Bujku”, 6/II/ 1995.
37. Dr Milovan Obradovic, Poljopriveda Kosova 1944-1953 (Agriculture of Kosova in 1945), “Kosova”, no. 16, Prishtina, 1987, pp. 249-250.
38. Dr Fehmi Pushkolli, Fronti Popullor - Lidhja Socialiste e Kosovės (1935-1975) (National Front - Social Alliance of Kosova (1935-1975), Prishtina, 1983, pp. 154-155.
39. Dr Sulltane Kojqini - Ukaj, Format e diskriminimit e tė gjenocidit tė politikės sė shtetit serb nė vitet e pasluftės (Forms of Discrimination and Genocide of Serbian Regime Policy in the Post-war Years), “Shkėndija”, September, 1994.
40. Ferit Shehu, Sevdije Shehu, Pastrimet etnike tė trojeve shqiptare 1953-1957 (Ethnic Cleansing of Albanian Regions, 1953-1957), Prishtina, 1994, p. 24.
41. Albanian Newspaper in Istanbul “Besa” (1950-1974).
42. Jusuf Kelmendi, Plenumi i KK tė LKJ tė Kosovės mė 1971 (The Plenum of CC YCL of Kosova in 1971).
43. Zamir Shtylla, Shpėrngulja e shqiptarėve nė Jugosllavi pas Luftės sė Dytė Botėrore 1950-1966, E vėrteta mbi Kosovėn dhe shqiptarėt nė Jugosllavi (Expulsion of Albanians from Yugoslavia after World War II, 1950-1966; The Truth on Kosova and the Albanians in Yugoslavia), Tirana, 1990, p. 442.
44. VUS, Zagreb, 7/VI/1971.
45. As note 40.
  Pėrgjigju duke cituar
I vjetėr 2.5.2010, 09:56   22
5. Serbian and Yugoslav Policy of Segregation and Apartheid (1981-1989)

Dissatisfied with the position of the subjugated, the Albanian students and youth organised demonstrations in 1981 with the main mobilising slogan - Kosova Republic. The whole Albanian population joined the youth and students.

The Yugoslav leadership valued that the demonstrations organised by the Albanian students and youth, as well as the slogans used in them “threatened the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Yugoslavia”.46 In order that whole Yugoslavia should fight against the right requests of the Albanian people, “The Political Platform on the action of YCL for socialist self-management, unity and brotherhood and common life in Kosova” was compiled and approved.47 This document with greater Serbian intentions was supported by the other republics and the leadership of the Communist League of Kosova. The Platform requested that the Albanians should break the cultural and scientific relations with Albania, abandon their national aspirations, and the request for the Republic of Kosova was evaluated as a reactionary one that intended to destroy Yugoslavia and unite Kosova with Albania.48 Due to this reason, state organs of Kosova, Serbia and Yugoslavia were requested to undertake measures for reduction of curricula of history, literature and other social subjects taught at schools.49 To apply this Platform, the mobilisation of all political-social organisations and state structures was requested. In this way began the isolation of Kosova within Yugoslavia and in relation to the world too.

The first attacks were organised against the institutions of national character, such as University of Prishtina, Institute of History, Institute of Albanology, National University Library, then mass media, museums, secondary schools, elementary schools and even kindergartens, cultural and professional associations and many other organisations.

The first attacks of Serbia, that took the character of segregation and apartheid, were provoked on the shops of Albanians and individuals in Serbia in 1981. In Pozarevac, in Serbia, an Albanian child was taken out his eyes by civilian Serbs. Many physical attacks and ill-treatments were organised, by both Serbian individuals and state bodies, particularly in Belgrade, Kragujevac, Pozarevac, Paracin, NiS and other cities, where Albanians lived.50 Since that time, Serbia began to apply open segregation, seeking only clean institutions consisting of Serbian workers alone, such as schools, cinemas, theatres, cafJs, hotels, even kindergartens, sports fields, swimming pools, etc. To implement the intentions for segregation and discrimination, Serbia applied the policy of apartheid. It passed laws to rule over the Albanian majority, depriving them of their political and citizen rights, human rights, freedom of movement, living, jobs, juridical and social protection.

In the period of ten years (1981-1990), more than 1,100 Albanian soldiers were sentenced to many years of prison in political fabricated processes, and 63 Albanian soldiers were killed in the Yugoslav Army.

The Assembly of Serbia approved some changes to the Penal Law of Serbia, in 1986, by which new delinquencies were incriminated for pursuing the Albanians, as if for the penal-legal protection of the Serbian people in Kosova. Such actions were: violation of citizens' equality, violation of the equal use of language and script, violations that threatened the rights and liberties of members of other nations, and threats of security of citizens of other nationalities, attacking the sexual freedom too. These had only one political and legal intention - to exert persecution and repression on the Albanians.

The Serbian regime treated Albanian peaceful demonstrations, requests, political manifestations as severe political acts, but also the cultural and scientific works of the Albanians. In this way, 3,348 Albanians were sentenced by civilian and military courts. In the period between 1981-1990 Serbian police and military killed 183 Albanians by fire arms, 16 of whom were children, and 616 Albanians were wounded by fire arms, 49 of whom were children.51 The former Yugoslav National Army (YNA) organised killing of Albanian soldiers in Paracin and gave the action a political character so that the Albanian soldiers could be treated as badly as possible by military and police organs of Serbia, that had the absolute majority in YNA.

In 1981, Serbia isolated Albanian intellectuals and kept them in prison for several months. The isolation of Albanian intellectuals took place in 1989, when the most draconic measures of torture and repression against 254 Albanian intellectuals were taken, and they were sent to prisons in Vranje, Leskovac, Prokuplje and Belgrade.

The police of Kosova and Serbia had worked out files for 600,000 Albanians; it means that every third Albanian was called to the police. Further on, both in Yugoslav regions of the Albanians and in Kosova around 100,000 Albanians were dismissed from work until 1989.52 


_____
46. Ibid., p.216.
47. Platformė politike pėr aksionin e LKJ nė zhvillimin e vetėqeverisjes socialiste, tė bashkimit e vėllazėrimit dhe tė bashkėsisė nė Kosovė (Political Platform on the Action of YCL in the Development of Socialist Selfmanagement, Unity and Brotherhood and Common Life in Kosova), Belgrade, 1982, pp.5-6.
48. Ibid.
49. Ibid.
50. As note 46, p. 217.
51. Mr. Xhemajl Ademaj, Ndjekja dhe politika ndėshkrimore pėr delikte politike nė Kosovė nė periudhėn 1981-1990 (Persecutions and Punishing Policy for Political Delicts in Kosova in the Period 1981-1990), Bota e Re, Prishtina, 1995.
52. Dr Esat Stavileci, Largimi nga puna i punėtorėve shqiptarė (Dismissal of Albanian Workers from Work), Pėrparimi, 1991, p.25.
  Pėrgjigju duke cituar
I vjetėr 2.5.2010, 09:57   23
6. The Memorandum of Serbian Academy - a Platform on Expulsion of Albanians

Expatriation of the Albanians by force from Kosova and their ethnic land has remained the chief intention of Serbian hegemonic policy. Parallel to state organisms, Serbian academicians of the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Serbia compiled projects on ethnic cleansing of the Albanians' land. In 1986, the Serbian Academy, that has always been in service of hegemonic politics of Serbian nationalists, compiled the Memorandum on the political, economic and constitutional position of Serbia in the former Yugoslav federation. The Memorandum did not leave aside Kosova either.53 

The Memorandum is penetrated by wild hatred and falsifications of the past and present time of the Albanians.

The Memorandum, which became the national programme of Serbia, deals with the engagement for creation of a greater Serbia. Serbia is presented as ‘threatened and harmed' by the Constitution of 1974. By such constructions, mobilisation of the population for destroying the autonomies of Kosova and Vojvodina and the establishment of Serbian hegemony in former Yugoslavia was aimed at. The principal thesis of the Memorandum was the allegedly degrading and inferior, unequal and discriminated position of the Serbian people in Yugoslavia.54 Serbian academicians manipulated with the figures of the Serbs migrated from Kosova, although according to the Serbian scientist, Cvijic, there have never been more than 5% Serbs in Kosova.55 The structure of population changed after 1912, after the occupation of Kosova by Serbia and its colonisation. According to the census in 1948, there were 170,000 Serbs, or 18.9%, in Kosova, and in 1981 there were 209,488 Serbs, or 13.2%.56 Accordingly, there was no migration of the Serbs from Kosova, much the less, when it is known that Serbia controlled the whole policy in Kosova.

These manipulations from the arsenal of greater Serbian politics, based on fine fabrications, try to justify their policy of colonisation and denationalisation in Kosova, by means of their propagandistic machinery. Serbian propagandistic machinery, attempting to alarm the opinion, goes to its absurdity, confirming that “Kosova will not have any Serb in ten years”.57 The Serbian official policy, led by the spirit of the memorandum of the ASAS, requested the destruction of the federal system of Yugoslavia established by the Constitution of 1974. The processes proceeding in Kosova after 1966 made the accomplishment of independence of Kosova possible to a certain degree. The Memorandum of Serbian academicians treated the process of the independence of Kosova as its Albanisation.58 They requested that Kosova should be deprived of all the rights to and possibilities for constitutional, juridical, economic and cultural-educational self-organisation, by all possible means. This practically took place in 1990, after the Serbian attacks against Kosova.


_____
53. Milorad Vucelic, Da li je Memorandum srpski nacionalni program (Is Memorandum a Serbian National Programme), “Duga”, June, 1989, p.6.
54. Memorandum of ASAS, Belgrade, 1986, published by ”Duga”, June, 1989, p. 39.
55. Jovan Cvijic, Balkansko poluostrvo (Balkan Peninsula), Belgrade 1966, p. 469.
56. Nacionalni sastav stanovnistva po opstinama, konacni rezultati (National Structure of Population in Communes, Final Results) , Statisticki Bilten -1295, Belgrade, 1982.
57. As notes 55, 57.
58. Ibid.
  Pėrgjigju duke cituar
I vjetėr 2.5.2010, 10:05   24
CHAPTER FOUR

THE EXPULSION OF ALBANIANS AND COLONISATION OF KOSOVA DURING 1990-1995 



1. Destroying Kosova Autonomy - an Instigation for Emigration of Albanians

By the Constitution of Yugoslavia and the Constitution of Kosova, approved in 1974, the autonomy of Kosova was advanced to a higher degree of sovereignty and Kosova became one of eight constituent subjects of Yugoslav Federation. Serbia was not satisfied with this, and in 1976 it compiled ‘the Blue Book', by which it intended to reduce the autonomy of Kosova drastically.

After the mass demonstrations of the Albanians in 1981, a significant polarisation between the Albanians of Kosova and the unitary and chauvinist forces of Serbia began. The former ones requested advancement of their statehood, and the latter ones destruction of the autonomy of Kosova.

Serbia carried out the destruction of the autonomy of Kosova step by step. It began it by establishing the state of emergency and sending the police and army to subjugate and occupy Kosova in 1981. Serbia took the demonstrations as a pretext to take over the competencies from the state organs in Kosova. The 13th Congress of the Yugoslav League of Communists (YLC) in 1986, passed ‘the Resolution on Constitutional Changes in the Republic of Serbia', by which destroying the autonomy of Kosova was intended. The memorandum of the ASAS, compiled on nationalistic basis, gave an instigation to Serbian plan for destruction of the autonomy that ought to be accomplished by Serbian state bodies.1 In this spirit was developed the public discussion on the amendments of Serbian Constitution.

It was the first phase of destruction of the autonomy of Kosova, and later by special measures Serbia abrogated violently all the governmental bodies of Kosova. In this way the autonomy of Kosova was destroyed completely.

The Albanian people, not accepting the subjugated position and the destruction of the autonomy of Kosova, began to organise themselves. The delegates of the Assembly of Kosova, after many endeavours and handicaps made by Serbia, passed the Declaration of the Independence of Kosova (2 July, 1990). The Assembly of Kosova, purported by the Albanian population, approved the Constitution of the Republic of Kosova at Kaēanik, on 7 September, 1990.

Out of what was said here, it results that they destroyed the autonomy of Kosova in order the subjugate the population of Kosova and force it to emigrate.


_____
1. Dr Esat Stavileci, Rrėnimi i Autonomisė sė Kosovės (Destruction of Kosova Autonomy), Prishtina, 1992, p. 43.
  Pėrgjigju duke cituar
I vjetėr 2.5.2010, 10:07   25
2. Approval of Serbian Acts and Laws as a Means for Acceleration of Emigration

Serbia and Montenegro made their efforts in different ways to contest the elements of sovereignty of Kosova, that were determined by the Constitution of Kosova and the Constitution of SFR Yugoslavia in 1974. Due to this they requested from the other republics of Federation to support them and they received their agreement to reduce the autonomy of Kosova. In this way they opened the way to destroy completely the autonomy by approving Serbian acts and laws, that were used to exert Serbian police and military violence. These measures influenced the acceleration of emigration of the Albanians from Kosova and their ethnic territories. The consequences were destructive not only for the constitutional position of Kosova, but also for the economy, health, education, science, culture, mass media,2 as well as the life of the Albanians in general. They accelerated particular emigration of the Albanians. Serbia requested from Yugoslavia to proclaim state of emergency in Kosova, and it did so. These measures created real bases for exertion of violence upon the Albanians. Instead of state bodies, a total supervision of Serbian police and military was established.

The discussions on the changes of the Constitution of Serbia began with amendments. The population of Kosova did not accept the proposals of Serbia. In public discussion organised in Kosova, the absolute majority of meetings and participants declared themselves in favour of maintenance of the autonomy and its advancing. Facing this, Serbia perpetrated violence on the delegates of the Assembly of Kosova. At the time of voting the amendments, the building of the Assembly of Kosova was surrounded by tanks, military and police, and members of the secret police were present in the hall too. In conditions of state of emergency, without the required quorum, without numbering the votes, and by voting of persons that were found in the hall but were not delegates, the then president of the Assembly of Kosova who was a Serb, on 23 March, 1989, proclaimed the approval of the constitutional amendments, and in addition to them some amendments that had not been in public discussion. The Assembly of Serbia approved amendments 9-49 to the Constitution of Serbia on 28 March, 1989. While Serbia was celebrating its victory, the police was killing Albanian demonstrators in Kosova that were protesting throughout Kosova.

The delegates of the Assembly of Kosova approved the Declaration of the Independence of Kosova on 2 July, 1990, that preceded to the Constitution of the Republic of Kosova, approved on 7 September, 1990 at Kaēanik. By these acts a new period in the history of struggles for independence of the Albanian people in Kosova began.

Serbia has made its efforts to prevent the formation of the state of Kosova by extraordinary measures, namely, by a state of emergency.

Serbia approved the law on the action of Republican bodies in special circumstances in Kosova, on 26 June, 1990, by which was destroyed the structure for directing the institutions of social and economic activities. Almost 300 Albanians directors were discharged by compulsory imposing measures.3 It was a hard attack against the Albanian people.

Serbia passed the law on abrogation of the activity of the Assembly of Kosova and its government on 5 July, 1990. By that law Kosova was deprived of legislative and executive power, that presented a classic occupation and it has continued to the present day.

Serbia passed the law on labour relations in special circumstances in Kosova, on 26 July, 1990, which is an act of national discrimination of the Albanians. By that law 135,000 Albanian workers were expelled from their jobs, and so their material base became very difficult to keep their families, the whole activity in the Albanian language was banned: education, culture, science and mass media. Then followed stoppage of financial support of institutions of national character, apart from others, of the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Kosova.

Serbia approved the Constitution of Serbia on 27 September, 1990. This act reduced the autonomy of Kosova still more, and the Albanian people did not take part in its approval. By that Constitution Kosova is called ‘Kosova and Metohia'. The Albanians consider that as a constitution of Serbian occupier.

Serbia passed the law on stoppage of activity of the Presidency of Kosova on 18 March, 1991, that was an act by which the autonomous status of Kosova was denied.

Serbia discharged the member from Kosova in the Presidency of Yugoslavia and chose another one instead. The election of that member was decided by the Assembly of Serbia and not the Parliament of Kosova, and so he was not the representative of Kosova.

After the abrogation of the government bodies of Kosova, the governmental organs of communes to local communities were abrogated as well. Except this, all the institutions on Kosova level and in its communes lost their competencies. Serbia formed new communes and divided Kosova into districts. Some parts of Kosova have been linked to districts outside Kosova. On the other hand, the courts of Kosova were abrogated and courts of Serbia have been installed in Kosova. The prisons have became institutions under Serbia as well. Changes have been made in the names of cities, villages, streets, quarters and settlements; all of them have taken Serbian names. Serbia has passed above 200 laws that are valid in Kosova as well. Besides laws, many other acts have been approved that are valid in Kosova only. On all the exit roads from Kosova police stations have been placed, even on those going to Serbia.

All of these devices have their basic intention to accelerate the expulsion of the Albanians from their ethnic land. The call of Albanian youngsters to draft boards of Serbian military has influenced greatly their exodus. All of these acts, laws and measures of violence against the Albanians in Kosova are unprecedented in Europe now at the end of twentieth century and influence the exodus of the Albanians from Kosova and other ethnic regions of the Albanians.


_____
2. Ibid.
3. Adil Fetahu, Masat e pėrkohshme akt i shkatėrrimit tė ndėrmarrjeve ekonomike dhe institucioneve shoqėrore tė Kosovės (Temporary Measure, an Act of Destruction of Economic Enterprises and Social Institutions in Kosova), Prishtina, 1992.
  Pėrgjigju duke cituar
I vjetėr 2.5.2010, 10:08   26
3. Closing of Institutions of Education, Science, Culture and Health

After the abrogation of the autonomy ((1989) and occupation of Kosova (1990) violence against the Albanians was intensified by the Serbian regime. Serbia closed institutions, dismissed workers from their jobs, moved the Albanians from their apartments, isolated, imprisoned and killed them without giving any responsibility and without any legal basis.4 Education of the Albanian population has always caused pains to Serbia.

In March 1990, Serbia organised poisoning of more than 7,000 Albanian school children and other children of the pre-school age.

In 1991 it closed all middle schools (65) and a number of elementary schools and stopped financing education in the Albanian language, from kindergartens to university. In this way, about 25,000 teachers remained without any pay.5 The Assembly of Serbia imposed emergency measures to Prishtina University, creating in this way the possibility for dismissal of more than 1000 Albanian university professor and assistants from work. In October 1991, it usurped all the room-space of faculties, higher schools, university students hostels and secondary school pupils hostels. It expelled from their jobs all the Albanian teaching and administration personnel.5 

The Serbian occupying regime imposed emergency measures at Kosova Institute of History in 1990, and closed it up in 1992. At the same time were closed the ‘INKOS' (Kosova Institute of Economy), Mining Institute in Mitrovica, Institute of Albanology, etc.

In July 1992, the Serbian government closed the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Kosova, that was a hard attack to the Albanian science and culture and raised a great indignation in Kosova. It had assisted the development of scientific and social mind and had been engaged in social trends, giving justification and scientific support to the actual problems in Kosova, particularly in the development of democratic relationships and self-determination. It had influenced profoundly the internationalisation of the question of Kosova.6 

The destruction of health institutions was also carried out in unticonstitutional and illegal way. The clinics of the Medical School in Albanian were closed. The Albanian personnel (doctors, nurses and others) was expelled from most of health institutions. Serbia brought Serbian doctors, nurses etc. instead of Albanian ones, even though without professional experience. This was done with strategic intentions of re-colonisation of Kosova.

Institutions of culture in Kosova experienced the same fate as those of education and health. In 11 institutions of national level, the activity of presentation of cultural values in Albanian was forbidden. At the same time, activity was banned in above 110 objects and institutions of culture (with space-room amounting to 125,000 m2), then it was banned to more than 420 societies, associations, artistic and cultural groups. Organisation of more than 70 manifestations, reviews, festivals, fairs, expositions and other traditional meetings that had been active in Kosova, was banned.

Publishing activity has, in fact, been stopped since 1990. Periodicals, reviews, newspapers, and even the sole daily newspaper in the Albanian language in Yugoslavia, ‘Rilindja', were forbidden to be published. The name of the Publishing House ‘Rilindja' was changed into ‘Panorama', and the printing house is called ‘Gracanica'. The school texts publishing house was closed. In 1991, the whole troop of Ballet Ensemble that had acted at the National Theatre of Kosova was dismissed, and the work at regional theatres was banned, such as in Prizren, Peja, Gjilan, Mitrovica, Gjakova, etc. Then the Institution of producing, distributing and performing films, ‘Kosovafilm', was closed; also the work of Kosova troupe of folk songs and dances, ‘Shota', and the Musician Association ‘Collegium Cantorum' was banned.

Prishtina Radio-television was closed, and 1,300 Albanians workers in it were left jobless.7 The National and University Library of Kosova was closed for the Albanians, as well as 207 national libraries throughout Kosova, with a fund of books of 1,272,000 units, and in addition 103 special libraries were closed. In the Archives of Kosova, the Albanian experts were expelled from their jobs after imposed measures were applied, and a part of documentation was plundered and sent to Belgrade.

All of these measures can serve as a testimony of Serbian violence and terror exerted on the Albanian population and Albanian national institutions of education, culture, science, health and mass media, perpetrating real culturocide on the Albanian being.


_____
4. ICK, Material of Kosova Government, Prishtina, 1992.
5. Acad. Mark Krasniqi, Kosova sot (Kosova Today), Prishtina, 1992.
6. Documents from the Archives of the President of the Republic of Kosova.
7. Dr Esat Stavileci, Largimi nga puna i punėtorėve shqiptarė (Dismissal of Albanian Workers from Work), ‘Pėrparimi', 1991, p. 52.
  Pėrgjigju duke cituar
I vjetėr 2.5.2010, 10:12   27
4. Mass Exodus - a Consequence of Serbian Repression and Terror

Depending on historical circumstances, the Albanians have been forced to emigrate from their ethnic land occupied by Yugoslavia. The intensity of emigration resulted from state repression. Since 1981, especially after 1990, violence and terror have increased. In fact, that was a period of the wild, totalitarian military-police regime, and the unprotected population suffered harshly.8 Serbian policy isolated Kosova and its citizens totally. The borders on Albania and Macedonia have actually been closed to the Albanians.

Individual and collective rights of the Albanians in Kosova have been violated systematically. Since 1981 onwards, almost half of the Albanian population has passed through police treatment in various forms. In the last two years, especially in 1994, a significant increase of violation of human and national rights and liberties was evidenced. This can be proved by cases of killing and ill-treating in different forms by the Serbian regime.

Below is presented a table of the cases evidenced by the Kosova Council of Human Rights and Liberties (KCHRL), for the period 1993, 1994 and six months in 1995.

The KCHRL, with its seat in Prishtina, registered 19,000 heavy cases of violation of human rights and liberties in 1994. It must be emphasised that many cases could not have been evidenced. The last year (1995) shows a significant acceleration of Serbian repression.

Taking the members of family as pledge for a wanted person has become very frequent. The member of the family is held as a pledge until the wanted person presents himself at the police.

Serbia implements another form of repression in order to bring the Albanian population to poverty.

The financial police organises plundering of Albanian citizens, craftsmen and traders in all the settlements of Kosova.


Type of violation 1993 1994 1995
1. Killing by fire arms 11 11 5
2. Killing by police torture 4 6 3
3. Suicide as a result of torture - 1 2
4. Persons harshly tortured - 11 -
5. Physical ill-treatment 1721 2157 -
of them: women - 22
children - 28
6. Raids of houses 1994 2157
7. Ill-treatment under pretext of searching for arms 3396  6394
8. Arbitrary imprisonment 2305 2963
of them: women - 7
children - 3
9. Informative talks 849 2729
10. Punishment with political motives - 90
11. Persons in temporary arrest - 490
12. Imprisonment or punishment due to desertion
or refusal to military service - 685
13. Imprisonment of a family member instead of the required persons: - 62
women - 10
children - 5
14. Forceful eviction out of the flat 53 54
15. Confiscation of passports 9  - 127


Poverty that has prevailed over the whole population of Kosova makes life harder and more difficult. Mass unemployment has created poverty of all the classes of population. Expulsion of the Albanians from their jobs has not come to its end.

The charitable and humanitarian organisation ‘Mother Teresa' was asked for aid by 43,320 families in 1992, 45,835 ones in 1993, and 57,353 ones in 1994. Serbian regime has banned work to humanitarian organisations as well.10 

After 1990, the Serbian regime intensified its violence, and particularly in educational system in the Albanian language. The Serbian police has continuously intervened in the educational process and ill-treated Albanian teachers before their students, and also the parents and students themselves.

The Serbian regime has undertaken all these measures on purpose to create a feeling of uncertainty and to cause the process of emigration of the Albanians from Kosova and re-colonisation of it by Serbs.

Political, psychological and economic pressure that has been exerted through state terror, is exerted by a plan and programme and all possible mechanisms of violence. Youngsters, men, women with their children, pupils, students, workers of different professions, intellectuals, and even academicians have emigrated.11  The Albanians have been forced to emigrate for different motives: Albanian soldiers that fled from the Yugoslav front of war, other youngsters that did not accept being recruited in the Serbian military, citizens and political activists that were wanted and persecuted by the Serbian police, and others.12 

As a consequence of repression exerted by the Serbian police, 45,972 school children and 1,123 teachers emigrated from Kosova in 1993, and 50,000 school children and above 2,000 teachers of primary and secondary schools, and more than 60 university professors emigrated in 1994. Desertion of Albanian young men (soldiers) from the so-called former Yugoslav National Army (YNA), and later from the Serbian-Montenegrin military, since the beginning of armed conflicts in Yugoslavia was in mass. According to the evidence of Belgrade, about 18,000 Albanian soldiers were in the army in 1991. It is supposed that in 1992, when YNA was decomposed and the Serbian-Montenegrin army was formed, around 30,000 Albanian soldiers of Kosova deserted the army. In the later years, 1993-1995, Albanian young men did not reply to military obligation. According to some calculations, some 80,000 young men seem to have fled from Kosova, not wanting to serve in Serbian army.

All of this said above confirms that the consequences of the Albanian exodus are overwhelming. One could distinguish among them:

a) the demographic aspect, which indicates that disproportion of age and sex of the population is observed in the space of emigration. Bearing in mind that the Albanian population is quite young (50% is under 20 years old), only old population, women and children, has remained in Kosova. In this way, the number of marriages and birth-rate have been reduced; b) the economic aspect, in the absence of young population, the contingent of population capable for labour and labour force have been reduced, the economic structure and the structure of people's qualification have changed, the economic activity and standard of living have been decreased; c) the psychological aspect, special problems in the psychological life of emigrants and their families, and many other problem have occurred.14 

By its anti-Albanian position, Serbia refuses the return of the Albanians to Kosova, such as to: a) those who have requested asylum; b) those who do not possess a certificate for their passport identity; c) those that do not have a pass issued by Yugoslav representatives; d) those who posses passports issued in other republics in former Yugoslavia now independent states (Croatia, Bosnia, etc.).15 Recently, Belgrade had conditioned the return of Albanian refugees by material compensation.

All of this indicates clearly that the general situation in Kosova has become very difficult in all the spheres of life in the recent years. The invading regime has deprived the Albanians of their elementary rights. Accordingly, silent ethnic cleansing by special programming has taken place in Kosova.


_____
8. Dr Rifat Blaku, Shkaqet e eksodit shqiptar, shpėrngulja e shiptarėve gjatė shekujve (The Reasons for the Albanian Exodus, Emigration of Albanians during Centuries), Prishtina, 1992, p. 203.
9. Report of The Kosova Council of Human Rights and Liberties given to a delegation of Switzerland, January, 1995, Prishtina.
10. Report of the Charity Organisation “Mother Tereza', January, 1995.
11. As in note 9.
12. Information of the Sector of Emigration of LDK, Prishtina, 1995.
13. A Brief report on the Situation in Kosova Education, 7 May, 1993, Prishtina.
14. Dr Tefik Basha, Aspekte bashkėkohore demografike tė eksodit tė shqiptarėve nga trojet e tyre (Contemporary Demographic Aspects of the Exodus of Albanians from Their Land), ‘Bota shqiptare', No. 1, Tirana, 1992.
15. As in note 13.
  Pėrgjigju duke cituar
I vjetėr 2.5.2010, 10:14   28
5. Serbian-Montenegrin Short-term and Long-term Intentions of Resettling Albanians

The aim of the Serbs and Montenegrins has been to occupy the land of the Illyrians-Albanians from north to south since they colonised a part of the Balkan Peninsula. They have carried out ethnic cleansing wherever they happened to live. The South Slavs, on the whole, and Serbs in particular, accepted all the conditions that the Byzantine Empire imposed them and only requested permission to colonise the Balkans. In twelfth century, when a tribal state was formed known by the name Ras, then Zeta, the Serbs began to populate the land of the Albanians in an organised way. The Serbian ruler, Tzar Dusan, expanded his state on the else's land and by invading the land of the Albanians and Greeks. Even after Ottomans occupied the Balkans, The Serbs, despite their being under the Ottoman Empire, received the blessings of the Orthodox Church and Russia and organised two uprisings in the beginning of nineteenth century and won their local autonomy.

Since that time, the Serbian Orthodox Church and intellectuals and leaders have intended to form their state on the land that once Tzar Dusan invaded. This means that they had to invade the land of the Albanians, that was under the Ottoman Empire. Due to this intention, national projects and programmes were compiled, determining the strategy and tactics. The Balkans was ruled by two empires: Ottoman and Austrian. But the vital interests of Russia, England and France, and later of Germany, were intertwined here.

In these circumstances, ‘Nacertanija’ was compiled by Ilija Garašanin, in 1844. ‘Nacertanija’, as a Serbian national programme, had genocidal character and had to be perpetrated upon the Albanians, as it anticipated the invasion of their land and their ethnic cleansing. In shortage of immediate force, the project determined: “Serbia should make its utmost efforts to take out stone by stone from the building of the Turkish state and so take whatever possible from that good material... and so be able to erect a new Serbian state...”.16 

This project was based on a long-term programme of action and occupation of the land of ethnic Albanians. The same intention continued to be carried out also by the New Programme of Mihailo Obrenovic in 1862, which, parallel to liberation of the Balkans from the Ottoman Empire, anticipated the emigration of the Albanians from here and access of Serbia to the sea. The project planned that the Albanians should be expatriated bit by bit, and their land be occupied by military forces. This, in fact, happened on the eve of the Congress of Berlin, when Serbia occupied Niš, Prokuplje, Toplica, Kursumlia, Jablanica, Leskovac and Vranje, and resettled the Albanian population forcefully from those territories. In the same period, Montenegro became expanded, occupying new regions of the Albanians and forcing them to emigrate.

During the Balkan Wars, the Serbs and Montenegrins invaded the largest part of Albanian land, but after the proclamation of the independence of Albania, they withdrew from those regions, and have held another part of it occupied ever since (Kosova, Western Macedonia, Plava, Gucia, Great Malėsia, Kraja, Tivar and Ulqin). The majority of Albanian population has forcefully emigrated from all these territories.

Summarising: Serbian and Montenegrin long-term intentions towards the Albanians and their territory can be divided into two periods: First, their intentions until the independence of Albania (1912), and second, after the establishment of the Albanian state to the present day.

In the first period they had the intention:

- to ban the establishment of an Albanian independent state;
- to occupy Albanian territories;
- to force the Albanians to emigrate from their ethnic land;
- to colonise the land of ethnic Albanians by Serbs and Montenegrins;
- to convert the Muslim and Catholic Albanians into the Orthodox religion and assimilate them;
- to partition Albania between Serbia and Greece, giving the latter a part in the south;

In the second period their intentions have been:

- to occupy and partition Albania among Serbia, Montenegro and Greece, and later with Italy as well.
- to isolate the Albanian state from western states in order that it should remain under the Yugoslav dependency;
- to turn Albanian forces as weak as possible, so that it could not defend itself in cases of its future subjugation by Yugoslavia;
- to make it possible for the communist ideology to rule and become disseminated in Albania, and it should become the sphere of interests of Yugoslavia and Russia;
- to isolate Albania and the Albanians as much as possible politically, economically, diplomatically.

These have been permanent intentions of Serbia and Montenegro towards Albania and the Albanians. They have aspired that the Albanians should be left without real friends and separated from Europe, with which they had been linked for centuries.


_____
16. ‘Nacertanija’ - 1844, ‘Delo', Belgrade, 1906.
  Pėrgjigju duke cituar
I vjetėr 2.5.2010, 10:15   29
6. Re-colonisation of Kosova - Erection of Kibbutzes on Albanians' Land 1990-1995 

Serbia and Montenegro aimed at changing the structure of ethnic population of Kosova by means of its re-colonisation by Serbs and Montenegrins. The self-called Yugoslav Federation as well the Serbian occupying bodies in the communes in Kosova have passed different legal acts by which they have defined the manner, form, and space for settlement of Serbian colonists in the property of the Albanians. On purposes of accelerated colonisation, the Serbian regime has built kibbutzes on the land of the Albanians.

During the last five years, 500 laws, drafts, orders, regulations and other acts dealing with re-colonisation have been approved. These laws, decrees and acts of genocidal character confirm that the authorities of this state not yet recognised by the world, competed with those who would offer more funds and facilities to colonise Kosova forcefully, although it is a region with the densest population in Europe.

Starting in 1990, the self-called ‘Federal Republic of Yugoslavia' (FRY), except for the YU-programme, passed some seven more legal acts, that are chiefly laws and programmes ‘on providing flats for officials and for coming of all those who like to live in Kosova'. In three such acts solely, that cover the period 1989-1993, was planned erection of 2,000 flats with a surface of 115,272 m2 and 711 sites in addition for building individual houses, on a surface of 284,400 m2, that amounted to above 7,1 million DEM. There were also provided 10,2 million DEM for individual loans for construction. Later on followed ‘The Decree on the way and conditions for renting and using flats', then ‘The Decision on pointing the federal body of administration that would carry out the right and duties of the investor'. Serbia also passed ‘The Law on providing flats', which anticipates the erection of 1,564 flats with a surface of 88,773 m2, and 91.1 million DEM were planned for it.

FRY passed a law in 1995 on colonisation of 100,000 Serbs and Montenegrins in Kosova. The law defines that sites for houses, erected houses, fertile land, flats and large financial funds would be provided gratis for Serbian colonists.

The Serbian regime has brought to Kosova many Serbian families from Croatia and Bosnia, and even from Serbia itself as colonists . They have been settled in primary and secondary schools, kindergartens, students hostels, children and workers resorts and libraries. The Serbian government considers the colonisation of Kosova by Serbs and expulsion of the Albanians as an urgent national action. This colonisation by force is considered by the Albanians as an action on purpose of forcing them to emigrate and turning Kosova into a clean Serbian land, namely, the consider it as an act of genocide.

The government in Belgrade approved a Decision on 15 November, 1994, by which the return of Albanian refugees that have sought asylum in western Europe is conditioned by financial compensation (as if for their registration). Serbia has planned to re-colonise Kosova by Serbs and Montenegrins with those funds.

To return Albanian refugees from Europe to Kosova, western countries should work out an agreement with the legitimate representatives of the Albanians and not with the Serbian occupiers of Kosova.

Serbia and the so-called Yugoslavia have made their efforts to re-colonise Kosova in a classic way and force the Albanians to emigrate from their ethnic land. To have a clear picture of what the occupier has done to colonise Kosova, evidence of the places where houses, flats and whole colonies have been erected in different communes for Serbian colonists are provided below.
  Pėrgjigju duke cituar
I vjetėr 2.5.2010, 10:16   30
7. Colonisation of Kosova with Croatian Serbs from 10 to 31 August, 1995

A new action of Serbian regime for recolonisation and serbianisation of Kosova began with the wave of Serbian refugees coming from Croatian Kraina. The recolonisation wave began on 10 August, 1995 and continued further on. The number of Serbian refugees from Croatia, according to Serbian sources, arrived to around 8,000 on 31 August, 1995. However, the data leave the possibility to assert that half of the Belgrade plan for the settlement of 20,000 Serbian colonists from Croatia to Kosova has been fulfilled.

Despite the reactions of Albanian and international state and political subjects, particularly of the USA, the Serbian regime continued with settling the Serbian refugees from Croatia to the territory of Kosova. It brought about 500-700 new Serbian colonists to Kosova during the summer of 1995, settling them even by force in the objects and property of the Albanians. In spite of Serbian pompous propaganda that the action had a humanitarian character, it is clear that the main intention of this action is to change the ethnic structure of the population and to colonise Kosova.

Based on Serbian relying facts, we provide with the number of Serbian colonists settled in some centres of Kosova.

In Prizren 1,280, in Prishtina 2,040, in Peja 1,000, at Istog 667, in Gjilan 500, in Gjakova 420, in Mitrovica 318. In Vushtria, at Suhareka and Zubin Potok 250 colonists were installed. At Shtėrpce 232, Leposavic 220, Lipjan 200, Vitia 174, at Kamenica 121, at Zveēan and Obiliq 120 each, in Ferizaj and at Rahovec 100 each, at Klina 7, at Kaēanik 70, at Gllogoc 6o, at Fushė-Kosova 20, at Skenderaj 15, etc.

Serbian state bodies, both earlier and this time too, settled a large number of colonists at Presheva, Bujanoc and Medvegja, as well as in Ulqin, Tivar and at Plava and Gucia, etc. Therefore, they colonised all the Albanian settlements what indicates clearly the political character of this campaign for colonisation of the regains of ethnic Albanians. These colonists are being secured jobs and means for jobs, land, houses and apartments free of charge and on permanent property basis.


The list of Serbian colonists at schools, dormitories, and other institutions and objects in Kosova placed from 10-31 August, 1995.

1. Prishtina 1040 colonists

Elementary School at Milosevo
Middle Medical School
Teaching Training School
Vocational School
Middle School “Sh. Gjeēovi”
Students Dormitory
Pupils Dormitory
Youth Centre “Boro and Ramiz”
The Parliament of Kosova
Hotel ‘Bozur’
Sports Hall “25 May”
Kindergarten

2. Gjakova 420 colonists

School “Hysni Zajmi”
Middle Medical School
Students Hostel “XH. Doda”
Pupils Dormitory
Higher Pedagogical School “Bajram Curri”
Hotel “Pashtrik”
Summer Resort “Emin Duraku”
Offices of AC “Ereniku”

3. Prizren 1280 colonists

Elementary School at Sredska
School “Mati Logoreci”
Students Dormitory “Xhevdet Doda”
Military Barracks
Motel “Landovica”
Summer Resort at Nashec
Motel “Camp-putnik”

4. Ferizaj 100 colonists

School “Zenel Hajdini”
Sports House “Rinia”
The Barrack of Tube Factory workers “Luboteni”

5. Mitrovica 318 colonists

Children Summer Resort
Centre of Handicapped Children
School “Meto Bajraktari”
Middle School of Engineering
Middle Medical School
Dormitory “Xheladin Deda”
Sports Hall
Hotel “Adriatic”
Police Station at Staritrg

6. Peja 1000 colonists

Special School of the Blinds
Elementary School “Asdreni”
Elementary School “Lidhja e Pezės”
Middle School “V.P. Shkodrani”
Higher Economic Commercial School Dormitory
Motel “Karagaē”

7. Gjilan 500 colonists

Kindergarten
School “Thimi Mitko”
Dormitory “Trajko Peric”
Sports Hall
The Building of “Gosa”

8. Suhareka 250 colonists

Hotel “Balkan”

9. Rahovec 100 colonists

Kindergarten
School “Mihajl Grameno”
Summer Resort at Ura e Fshenjtė
Hotel “Park”

10. Istog 667 colonists

Peja Spa
Hotel “Erenik”

11. Lipjan 200 colonists

Motel “Lipovica”
Mine “Golesh”

12. Vushtria 250 colonists

School Centre “Muharrem Bekteshi”
Barracks of the workers of “Kosova” Enterprise

13. Shtėrpca 232 colonists

Electro-Kosova Resort Place
Tube Factory Resort Place
Animal Farm at Raka

14. Kamenica 121 colonists

School “Fan Noli”
Pupils Dormitory
Hotel “Miniera”

15. Vitia 174 colonists

Middle Engineering School
Social Work Bureau
Health House
Hotel “Agrokomerc”
Enterprise “Morava e Epėrme”

16. Kaēanik 70 colonists

School “Vėllazėria - Old Kaēanik
Motel “Kalaja”

17. Klina 7 colonists

Summer Resort “Mirusha”
Hotel “Metohia”
Agricultural. Co-operative “Hullia”

18. Fushė Kosova 20 colonists

School “Mihajl Grameno”
School “S. Riza”
School “Vėllezėrit Frashėri”,
at Miradie e Epėrme

19. Gllogoc 60 colonists

Former Building of the Commune
and Party Committee

20. Zubin Potok 250 colonists

21. Leposavic 220 colonists

22. Obiliq 120 colonists

Electro-Kosova Building

23. Zveēan 120 colonists

24. Skenderaj 15 colonists

Middle School “Ramiz Sadiku”
Culture House “Hasan Prishtina”

25. Podujeva 15 colonists

Middle Engineering School

Total 7,549 colonists

TOTAL:
5  kindergartens and summer resorts
12 elementary schools
16 middle schools
9  pupils and students dormitories and hostels
1  higher school
42 other objects (buildings)

This list does not include the colonists that were settled in private and social houses and apartments at villages and in the cities in Kosova.
  Pėrgjigju duke cituar
I vjetėr 2.5.2010, 10:22   31
Conclusions

The process of ethnic cleansing and colonisation of the land of the Albanians, seen from the view of original data and authentic documents and overwhelming literature, makes it possible to draw some conclusions, among which the following are the most important ones:

The Ottoman Empire held under its occupation the whole ethnic territory of the Albanians until nineteenth century. This made it possible for the Albanians, in spite of being occupied, to fight as a whole for their national liberation and form their political opinion for establishment of the Albanian nation and state. However, there was a general shaking of the peoples of the Balkans in nineteenth century, and by this the Albanians were threatened to have their territory partitioned.

In the second half of nineteenth century, there were about 80,000 km2 of the land of ethnic Albanians, on which 1.7 million inhabitants lived. The Ottoman Empire had divided these territories into the vilayets of Kosova, Shkodra, Manastir and Janina. The defeat of the Ottoman Empire at the war against Russia, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece presented a definite danger for the Albanian land to be partitioned.

The neighbouring countries had their intention to occupy the land of ethnic Albanians, and Russia made its efforts to secure itself an access to the Adriatic and Ionian Sea. To accomplish these intentions they compiled pan-Slavonic projects on ethnic cleansing and forceful expulsion of the Albanians.

In the second half of nineteenth century tens of thousands of Albanians emigrated from their ethnic land. Serbia compiled the project ‘Nacertanija’ in 1844, which anticipated the occupation of ethnic Albanians territories and emigration of the Albanians by force. Serbia, Montenegro and Russia came out victorious at the war they fought against the Ottoman Empire and managed to occupy the land of ethnic Albanians. Serbia occupied almost half of the Vilayet of Kosova and cut off Niš, Prokuplje, Kursumlia, Vranje, Leskovac, Jablanica and Toplica with more than 640 villages of the Albanians from the Albanian trunk.

Serbian military committed unprecedented massacres, killing and slaughtering children as well. As a result of this, 350,000 Albanians were expatriated. From that time to the present day Serbia has continued with the expulsion of the Albanians. It ignored the decision of the Congress of Berlin that banned forcing the Albanians to emigrate, and colonised their land by Serbs. The same way was followed by Montenegro, cleaning the ethnic Albanians from their land, such as the fields of Zeta, Tivar, Ulqin, Plava, and Gucia, although it could not occupy them by its military force. The Montenegrins were settled as colonists in these regions. Therefore, after the second half of nineteenth century, especially in its fourth quarter, and later on, when the Ottoman Empire weakened rapidly, neighbouring Serbian and Montenegrin monarchies perpetrated their policy of extermination and genocide and even ethnocide on the Albanian population.

At the battles of Serbia and Montenegro, as well as the Balkan War (1912), and during the First World War, they fought in continuity on purpose to occupy the land of ethnic Albanians. During the First Balkan War, Serbia and Montenegro occupied almost two-thirds of the territory of the Albanians and secured their access to the Adriatic Sea. In that time about 300,000 Albanians were expatriated to Turkey. Tens and thousands of Albanians met their death on the way being expatriated, due to sufferings, hunger, frost, illnesses and shipwreck...

The London Conference recognised the independence of Albania and its borders were defined, but more than half of the land of ethnic Albanians remained under the rule of Serbia and Montenegro. Ethnic cleansing and genocide continued to be committed on the Albanians to the end of 1915 by Serbia and Montenegro.

Yugoslavia forced more than 250,000 ethnic Albanians to emigrate from their land between the two world wars. On this purpose it compiled different projects and proved acts of anti-Albanian and genocide character. Such projects were those by Cubrilovic, Andric, Molevic, Vukotic.

Based on these acts and projects, forceful emigration of the Albanian people continued in the occupied territories. To mange it, the Yugoslav government organised unprecedented massacres, such as massacre of children before their parents, pulling out babies from mother's stomach by means of a knife, burning the members of families in houses, trying on tied Albanians to see how many bodies can a bullet pass through, sending Albanians to camps, plundering their property and other misdeeds. One of very harsh punishing measure was conversion of Albanians into Serbian Orthodox religion, then ruining Albanians' mosques and (Catholic) churches, and ploughing Albanians' graveyards, that, undoubtedly was a real ethnocide.

The Yugoslav Kingdom continued the colonisation of Kosova and other land of ethnic Albanians by Serbs and Montenegrins. The Albanians were taken the best fertile land, then meadows, forests, pastures and so their life became impossible, both at villages and in cities. The Yugoslav regime settled Serbian and Montenegrin colonists in Albanians' houses. In this way, the Albanians were forced to leave their own houses. Yugoslavia erected many colonies and new settlements for Serbs and Montenegrins.

A convention between Yugoslavia and Turkey was signed in 1938 in order to legalise expatriation of the Albanians, by which 40,000 Albanian families were planned to emigrate to Turkey.

The Albanians of Kosova and other regions of theirs, as well as of Albania, took part on the side of anti-Hitlerian coalition during the Second World War, and managed to get liberated from nazi-fascism by means of their own forces. They formed their governmental organs during the war. At the end of 1943 and beginning of 1944, at the Assembly of Bujan, they made their determination to unite Kosova with Albania. It had been the intention of the Albanian people since they were cut off from Albania in 1912.

Parallel to the national liberation war, the Albanians were forced to fight against their neighbouring countries in which different movements were mobilised for occupation of the territory of the Albanians. Such movements were active in Serbia and Montenegro, by chetniks and ‘partisans'. These movements intended to perpetrated the extermination and expatriation of the Albanians. On this purpose, projects were compiled by Cubrilovic and others, in which forceful expatriation of the Albanians to Turkey and Albania was foreseen, resulting to ethnic cleansing of the Albanians. It should have been instigated by war, violence and terror. Consequently, in the meantime, about 50,000 Albanians were killed by them.

The forceful annexation of Kosova to Serbia and Yugoslavia influenced further on the emigration of the Albanians. Repression continued to be exerted in different ways and it was always done on purpose of the emigration and assimilation of the Albanians.

Mixed marriages between Albanians and Serbs (or Montenegrins) were stimulated by different devices, and religious conversion as well. To accomplish these intentions, Yugoslavia activated its Convention of 1938 with Turkey, and the Gentleman's Agreement between Yugoslavia and Turkey in 1953, and implemented other measures of violence and terror. Solely in 1956, more than 100 Albanians were beaten to death by the Serbian police.

Every expression of thought, feeling or culture dealing with the Albanian nation, was condemned. That is why more than 450,000 Albanians from Kosova and other spaces of the Albanians in Yugoslavia were expatriated to Turkey during the period 1952-1966.

In the period between 1981-1989, Serbia and Yugoslavia, based on the Memorandum of the ASAS, followed a policy of segregation and apartheid towards the Albanians. In 1989 Serbia destroyed the autonomy of Kosova, and in this way it instigated the emigration and exodus of the Albanians. It approved acts and laws on reduction of national and human rights of the Albanians of Kosova. In this direction, it ruined the economy and closed the institutions of education, science, culture and health, committing an unprecedented genocide in the Europe of twentieth century. The Albanians have been forcefully dismissed from work. All of these measures were taken in order to accelerate the process of emigration of the Albanians and re-colonisation of Kosova by Serbs.

In the last five years, about 12,000 Serbs and Montenegrins have been brought to Kosova as colonists. Serbia is planning to bring more than 100,000 additional Serbs and Montenegrins to Kosova. Serbia is also planning to settle several thousand Serbs from Croatia in Kosova. Since Kosova is one of the densest inhabited regions in Europe, the intentions of Serbia are apparent for further expulsion of the Albanians and ethnic cleansing of Kosova.
  Pėrgjigju duke cituar
I vjetėr 2.5.2010, 10:33   32
ANNEX

document1.txt - ‘Therapia', 26 July, 1880 / A report of Goschen sent to Granvillle
document2.txt - From the Archives of Historic-Military Institute in Belgrade
document3.txt - To the Presidency of the League of Nations / ‘Geneva, 26 September, 1924 
document4.txt - Promemory presented to the League of Nations / 1930
document5.txt - Colonisation and Serbianisation of Kosova (by Kosta Novakovic)
document6.txt - Archives of Military-Historic Institute Vasa Cubrilovic, “The Expulsion of the Albanians” Lecture held at the Serbian Cultural Club, on 7 March, 1937 / Conclusion
document7.txt - Report of Dr. Ivo Andric on Albania, in 1939 
document8.txt - Archives of Historic Military Institute in Belgrade / The Third Military Zone / Top secret, No. 1859/38 
document9.txt - To the Provincial Committee in December 1944 from the Highland of Kaēanik
document10.txt - The supreme headquarters of the national-liberation army and partisan units of Yugoslavia / Very confidential. No. 31 
document11.txt - Part of Memorandum of the ASAS
  Pėrgjigju duke cituar
Merr pjesė nė diskutim





Ora nė Shqipėri ėshtė 20:50.

Pajtim RSS
Vargmal © 2001 - 2019
Dijeni · Prektora · Pyetje · Kreu

Redaksia: kontakt@vargmal.org
Drejtbotimi: Lėnda e hasur kėtu mund tė pėrdoret nė ēdo mjet pėrcjellės, me kusht qė tė pėrmendet se ėshtė marrė nga faqja vargmal.org ose qė tė jepet vendndodhja e saktė e plotė brenda kėsaj faqeje. Nėse lėnda e hasur nė kėtė faqe dėshirohet tė pėrdoret pėr arsye qė tejkalojnė drejtpėrdorimin dhe drejtbotimin, kėrkohet leje e posaēme pas marrėveshjeje me mbarėvajtėsit dhe/ose krijuesit.
Drejtpėrdorimi: Veē tė tjerash, nė kėtė faqe paraqitet lėndė me tė drejta krijuesi, pėrdorimi i sė cilės nuk ėshtė miratuar gjithnjė gjegjėsisht prej mbajtėsit tė tė drejtave. Megjithatė lėnda shtjellohet nė pėrpjekjen tonė pėr njohjen, kuptimin, bashkėfjalimin e arsimimin rreth ēėshtjeve qė kanė tė bėjnė me mjedisin, botėkuptimin, shkencėn, shoqėrinė njerėzore nė pėrgjithėsi dhe shoqėrinė shqiptare nė veēanti. Mendojmė se ky pėrbėn pėrdorim tė drejtė sipas ligjit nr. 9380, dt. 28.4.2005, nenet 9, 26, 27. Nė lidhje me ēka pararendi, paraqitja kryhet pa pėrfitim tregtar ndaj atyre qė kanė shprehur interes paraprak pėr marrje njohurish pėr arsye kėrkimore, arsimore a pėrdorimi vetjak nė pėrputhje ligjin.